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Mumbai History


1534 - Bombay islands were captured by the Portuguese.
1661 - The islands were gifted in the dowry to Charles II of England.
1668 - Charles II gave the islands to the East Indian Company on lease.
1708 - Bombay became the H.Q. of the East India Company.
1862 - The islands were merged to shape one stretch.
1869 - Suez Canal was opened and Bombay developed as an international port.
1947 - Bombay was declared the capital of Bombay state.
1960 - Bombay was made the capital of Maharashtra.
1995 - The name was changed to Mumbai after the goddess 'Mumbadevi'.

The name Mumbai is an derived from Mumba or Maha-Amba—the name of the Koli goddess Mumbadevi—and Aai, "mother" in Marathi. The former name Bombay had its origins in the 16th century when the Portuguese arrived in the area and called it by various names, which finally took the written form Bombaim, still common in current Portuguese use.After the British gained possession of the city in the 17th century, it was believed to Bombay from the Portuguese Bombaim. The city was known as Mumbai or Mambai to Marathi and Gujarati-speakers, and as Bambai in Hindi, Persian, and Urdu. It is sometimes still referred to by its older names, such as Kakamuchee and Galajunkja.

GeographyMumbai is located at in the Indian state of Maharashtra. Mumbai consists of two distinct regions: Mumbai City and Mumbai Suburban District, which form two separate districts of Maharashtra. The city region is also commonly referred to as the Island City. Mumbai, as an urban entity, spans a total area of 609.4 km2 (233 sq mi) while Greater Mumbai, the area under the administration of Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC), spans a total area of 437.67 km2 (169 sq mi), with the Island City spanning 67.99 km2 (26 sq mi) and the suburban district spanning 371 km2 (143 sq mi).


Mumbai has a tropical climate, specifically a tropical wet and dry climate under the Köppen climate classification, with seven months of dryness and peak of rains in July. The cold season from December to February is followed by the summer season from March to June. The period from June to about the end of September constitutes the south-west monsoon season, and October and November form the post-monsoon season. Between June and September, the south west monsoon rains lash the city. Pre-monsoon show are received in May. Occasionally, north-east monsoon showers occur in October and November.


Mumbai has been a traditional stronghold and birthplace of the Indian National Congress, also known as the Congress Party. The first session of the Indian National Congress was held in Bombay from 28–31 December 1885. The city played host to the Indian National Congress six times during its first 50 years, and became a strong base for the Indian independence movement during the 20th century
EconomyMumbai is India's largest city and is considered the financial capital of the country as it generates 5% of the total GDP. It serves as an economic hub of India, contributing 10% of factory employment, 25% of industrial output, 33% of income tax collections, 60% of customs duty collections, 20% of central excise tax collections, 40% of India's foreign trade and Rs. 40 billion (US$ 820 million) in corporate taxes. Mumbai's GDP is Rs 200,483 crore (US$ 41.3 billion), and its per-capita income is Rs. 65,361 (US$ 1,350), which is almost three times the national average. Many of India's numerous conglomerates (including Larsen and Toubro, Reserve Bank of India, State Bank of India, LIC, Tata Group, Godrej and Reliance) and five of the Fortune Global 500 companies are based in Mumbai. Many foreign banks and financial institutions also have branches in this area, with the World Trade Centre being the most prominent one. Until the 1970s, Mumbai owed its prosperity largely to textile mills and the seaport, but the local economy has since been diversified to include engineering, diamond-polishing, healthcare and information technology.